Nutrition unlocks following topics
Genetic profile indicates there is increased or decreased likelihood of a particular trait. The predictive data profile gives probability only, and it should take in combination with other factors such a family history, environment, nutrition and other personal factors such as weight, age etc. In other words, genetic variations may influence your nutrient deficiency risks, but so do your choices!
The traditional method of weight loss is to restrict calorie intake. A popular method used by health professionals is to restrict the total number of calories consumed by 500 – 1000 kcal/day to achieve a loss of 0.5-1kg/week. However, the rate of weight loss will differ between individuals based on their genetic profile. Genetic variations determine the individual response to calorie restriction.
Scientific research has demonstrated that 40-60% of our bodyweight is genetically predisposed. Genes affect appetite and metabolism, which under certain dietary conditions, lead to an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese. It means that our genes and our environment together (nature and nurture) impact how our body develops and this can be further influenced by our lifestyle and dietary choices. Multiple genes predispose to common obesity.
Response to Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates provide the main source of energy for the body - they are used first, ahead of other nutrients such as protein and fat, providing fuel for the muscles. They are also the preferred fuel source for the brain, nervous system and heart. Each gram of carbohydrate provides 4 calories. The recommended daily amount (RDA) is approximately 45-60% of our total food intake. Carbohydrates are important for maintaining good health, but nutrigenetic studies have shown that for some people with a particular genetic profile, over-consumption of these macronutrients can increase the risk of gaining weight.
Response to Proteins
Proteins are the essential nutrients for the human body. As a fuel, proteins contain 4kcal/g, just like carbohydrates. However, unlike carbohydrates and fat, the body does not store protein; so it is important to eat a variety of dietary protein every day. Studies suggest that a high-protein diet may be more beneficial for weight loss and improvement of body composition and fat distribution in individuals with a certain genotype.
Response to Total Fats
Fats can be found in almost all foods, and are the most energy rich macronutrient, containing 9 kcals/g (twice as much as protein and carbohydrate). Animals use fats as the most economical way to store their energy. However, due to its high calorific value, too much fat can have a poor effect on health. Studies have shown that excess consumption of different fats can increase your risk of weight gain, depending on your genotype.
Response to Unsaturated Fats
Unsaturated fats should make up the greater part of your total intake of fats as they have a more beneficial effect on your health. However, beware of the calorie content per gram, as it is generally the same for both saturated and unsaturated fats. With certain genetic profiles, it has been found that an increased intake of unsaturated fats can have a beneficial effect on body weight.
Your genetic make-up determines not only your overall risk for obesity but also your body-shape, i.e. the development of muscle mass or where your body tends to accumulate fat. The measurement of your waist circumference and the amount of fat stored around the abdomen is a key determinant for measuring your risk of obesity, and obesity related conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The overall heritability of waist circumference has been shown to be approximately 40%.
In the case of overweight and obesity risk, successful weight management consists of two main components: 1) initial weight loss, and 2) weight maintenance. Some individuals find weight loss easy, but it’s the maintenance phase that is the long-term challenge. Some genetic profiles are associated with a greater propensity for regaining weight.